The more mitigation we do, the less adaptation will be required, and the less suffering there will be. There is a deep injustice in the impacts of climate change.
Rich countries have caused the problem with many decades of greenhouse-gas emissions and in the process have grown richer. But poor countries will be worst affected, facing greater droughts, floods, hunger, and disease.
The impacts are already hitting vulnerable communities, where people are starting to adapt their lives to this reality. In South Africa, less frequent and less reliable rains are forcing farmers to sell their cattle and plant faster-maturing crops. In Bangladesh, villagers are creating floating vegetable gardens to protect their livelihoods from flooding. In Viet Nam, communities are helping to plant dense mangroves along the coast to diffuse tropical-storm waves.
Climate change is a challenge to current models of economic growth: all countries will have to find low-carbon paths to development, in order to keep global temperatures to less than 2 degrees Celsius above pre-industrial levels. But given their historic role in causing the problem, rich countries now have two extraordinarily clear obligations: to stop harming, by massively cutting their greenhouse-gas emissions, and to start helping, by providing compensatory finance so that poor countries can adapt, before they suffer the full impacts of climate change.
Vamos cuidar um pouco de cada uma delas. O quadro internacional se alterou. A XXX confia na capacidade de resposta positiva da economia brasileira e reafirma seu compromisso com medidas que reforcem a sua solidez. Translation - English The international financial crisis and the Brazilian economy 1. XXX has been keeping a close watch on the evolution of the international financial crisis and on its effects on the Brazilian economy. Its volatility makes it difficult for us to evaluate its impacts in the very short term. Brazil is in a better position to deal with this crisis now than in the past, but this is not to say that it is immune to its effects; 2.
The international scenario has changed. Brazil must continue to take action to enable the Country to make progress on its development and modernization agenda, reinforcing its capacity to come to grips with this new scenario; 3. The crisis is being transmitted to Brazil by two main factors: lower availability of international credit and lower demand for our products.
The decline observed in foreign credit lines is the most significant impact of the crisis in the short run, and it is forcing enterprises to resort to domestic sources to complement them; 4.
Preserving funding sources for investments is key for ensuring the continuity of the positive changes that the Country is experiencing. For this purpose, higher domestic savings are required. Reducing the growth pace of current public spending has become even more necessary; 5. The monetary policy should pay particular attention to the need to ensure liquidity to economic agents.
It is a must to reconsider the intensity of the monetary policy, as it was not designed to deal with the current situation. Higher credit costs, resulting from higher banking spreads, are creating huge difficulties for enterprises; 6.
It is essential to make progress on the agenda of structural reforms, such as the tax reform, the reform of the social security system, the reform of the labor system and microeconomic reforms designed to lend more fluidity and efficiency to markets and to ensure greater productivity and better competitiveness conditions for Brazilians products; 7. Ensuring advances to improve the foundations and the environment for business enhances the potential for ensuring continued economic growth.
XXX trusts in the positive responding capacity of the Brazilian economy and reaffirms its commitment to promoting measures to reinforce its solidity. It is based on an extensive and valuable set of reports by United Nations Member States, which show that results are mixed, but positive in many respects.
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Together, we can reach these critical goals, if we act now and with renewed resolve. This requires us to invest more in basic social services, enhance public-private partnerships, scale up strategies, and provide a healthy, safe and protective environment for children. The evidence and analysis in this report point to clear directions for our collective efforts to build a world in which all children can survive, grow and develop to their full potential, protected from the many threats that jeopardize their rights.
The Contribution for Intervention in the Economic Domain CIDE is a kind of tax applied in Brazil which is to be paid for a special benefit enjoyed by taxpayers as a result of specific actions of the State in favor of the social group they belong to. These actions must be focused on the group, not on the taxpayers - thus the difference from other taxes - and must result in a special advantage for the group.
It also presupposes a public service from which the group derives a special advantage. Without the group, it would be a discriminatory tax whose proceeds would be used to cover specific expenditures. Without the service from which an advantage is derived, it would be a discriminatory taxation mechanism. In the case in question, the CIDE contribution is applied on such a broad basis and comprises situations that are so distinct and disparate that the existence of a group is questionable.
It is also questionable whether "open" technological research can be considered a specific activity from which a specific group can derive benefits. The group, which is very broad, ends up being confounded with society itself, for which reason defrayal should be covered by taxes.
For some people, this is a diversion of funds that would be shared with States and Municipalities to a specific expenditure. Another problem is that if the contribution were collected as income tax, laws abroad would, in many cases, allow for the tax credit to be used to reduce the amount owed.
As a contribution, this arrangement is much more complex, increasing the actual transaction cost. In addition, if the contribution were collected as withholding income tax, taxation agreements entered into by Brazil could apply. The CIDE contribution is not covered by them. If the CIDE contribution is done away with but the withholding income tax is re-established at a rate corresponding to the absorption, the result can be null for the Brazilian company, except in cases where foreign laws allow for the income tax to be deducted from the amount owed abroad.
In this case, in view of the use of tax credit, the total cost can be reduced for the company in Brazil. Even in the case of payments to a person living in a country with which a taxation agreement is in force, classifying the income in order to ascertain whether it would be taxable by Brazil or by the other country is an extremely difficult process. The area covered by the project includes municipalities or cantons located in border zones in these 4 countries. Altogether, 16 municipalities were selected on the basis of their epidemiological importance along the whole border and of the vulnerability of their population, which has precarious access to health care services.
The demographic and epidemiological features of this border include many different scenarios, ranging from territories with disperse indigenous populations to areas in which people are engaged in extrative and gold-mining activities and municipalities with major urban areas close to border zones marked by a high flow of people between countries. As for the geographic coverage of malaria-prone border areas in the Amazon region, the two Projects could complement each other positively in covering the large Brazilian border with the other countries.
Of the border municipalities enjoying the benefits afforded by XXXXX, 14 also border on Brazil, of which 10 border on Brazilian municipalities that, because of their epidemiological importance, were included in this proposal to the XXX.
Apart from municipalities strictly bordering on Andean countries, the XXXXX project is also active at a higher administrative level at the department, province or state level. The situation is the same in the Brazilian project, which proposes intense work with the States to promote the adoption of strategies and tools designed to enhance the Program's impact. For this purpose, the main element for integrating the Brazilian project into the XXXXXX Project consists in adopting and promoting the same strategies and tools in connection with key malaria surveillance and control aspects.
The Brazilian project includes these elements in various aspects of the proposal and, on its part, XXXX has been adopting some of them and making major progress in some countries.
Through graphic characters adapted by different civilizations, human beings began to receive and convey knowledge, a fundamental step for us to reach our current stage of intellectual, social, cultural, scientific and technological development. Up till the 15th century, texts were reproduced manually, which made knowing how to read a privilege enjoyed by few people. However, with the advent of the Gutenberg press, in , it became easier and faster to disseminate information and cultural values. With the aim of enabling blind people to access knowledge and, consequently, to socialize with others in society, many attempts were made in different parts of the world to develop a tactile alphabet, but all of them failed because they could not be adjusted to the unique features of this reading method.
However, it was impossible to write using this method. Barbier's system consisting of raised dots had the disadvantage of being a phonetic system only, but Louis Braille used it to begin to develop a writing and reading system whose first version he presented to the world in The Braille System, based on combinations of six raised dots, allowed for the alphabet, numbers and arithmetic, phonetic and music symbols to be represented in a different way and was fully adapted for tactile reading, as each character could be felt by the most sensitive area of the fingers the pulp.
In , Louis Braille presented the final version of his system and, although it took a few decades for it to be accepted in France, the Braille reading and writing method began to be massively used in Europe and in other parts of the world before the end of the 19th century. In the early s, at the initiative of XXXXX, studies began to be carried out to adapt and unify the Braille System with the aim of making it possible for different linguistic groups to use it. Considered as the natural means for blind people to read and write, the Braille System is based on six raised dots distributed in two vertical 3-dot columns.
Combined in different ways, these dots allow for the alphabet, numbers, punctuations and scientific and phonetic symbols to be represented in a unique way. For all of these reasons, blind people all over the world are eager to celebrate, on January 4, , the th anniversary of Louis Braille's birth.