After returning to England, Gissing settled in London with Nell, writing fiction and working as a private tutor, he failed to get his first novel Workers in the Dawn accepted by a publisher and published it funding it with money from an inheritance. He was friends with Eduard Bertz , a German socialist with whom he became acquainted in Gissing spent much time reading classical authors at the British Museum Reading Room , as well as coaching students for examinations. He took long walks through the streets of London observing the poor.
In his reading, John Forster's Life of Dickens interested him, he wrote in his diary entry for January 23rd that Forster's work was "a book I take up for impulse, when work at a standstill'. According to his pupil Austin Harrison , from Gissing made a decent living by teaching and tales of his fight with poverty, including some of his own remembrances, were untrue; the issue of his supposed poverty may be explained by Gissing's attitude to teaching, which he felt robbed him of valuable writing time which he limited as much as possible and by poor management of his finances.
George Bentley decided not to publish it despite Gissing making revisions.
Before his next novel, The Unclassed was published in , Gissing and his wife separated because Gissing was unwilling to give the time and energy required to support Nell through what was becoming her chronic ill-health. He continued to pay a small amount of alimony until her death in Between his return to England and the publication of The Unclassed, Gissing wrote 11 short stories, although only "Phoebe" was published at the time, in the March issue of Temple Bar ; the years following the publication of The Unclassed were a time of great literary activity.
Isabel Clarendon and Demos appeared in ; the novels written at this time depicted the life of the working class. They had two children, Walter Leonard and Alfred Charles Gissing, but the marriage was not successful. Edith did not understand his work and Gissing insisted on keeping them isolated from his peers, which exacerbated problems in the marriage.
Pseudonym A pseudonym or alias is a name that a person or group assumes for a particular purpose, which can differ from their first or true name. Pseudonyms include stage names and user names, ring names, pen names, aliases, superhero or villain identities and code names, gamer identifications, regnal names of emperors and other monarchs, they have taken the form of anagrams and Latinisations , although there are many other methods of choosing a pseudonym. Pseudonyms should not be confused with new names that replace old ones and become the individual's full-time name.
Pseudonyms are "part-time" names, used only in certain contexts — to provide a more clear-cut separation between one's private and professional lives, to showcase or enhance a particular persona, or to hide an individual's real identity, as with writers' pen names, graffiti artists' tags, resistance fighters' or terrorists' noms de guerre, computer hackers ' handles. In some cases, pseudonyms are adopted because they are part of a cultural or organisational tradition: for example devotional names used by members of some religious institutes, " cadre names" used by Communist party leaders such as Trotsky and Lenin.
A pseudonym may be used for personal reasons: for example, an individual may prefer to be called or known by a name that differs from their given or legal name, but is not ready to take the numerous steps to get their name changed. A collective name or collective pseudonym is one shared by two or more persons, for example the co-authors of a work, such as Carolyn Keene , Ellery Queen , Nicolas Bourbaki. Or James S. A pseudonym is distinct from an allonym, the name of another person, assumed by the author of a work of art; this may occur when someone is ghostwriting a book or play, or in parody , or when using a "front" name, such as by screenwriters blacklisted in Hollywood in the s and s.
See pseudepigraph , for falsely attributed authorship. Sometimes people change their name in such a manner that the new name becomes permanent and is used by all who know the person; this is not an alias or pseudonym, but in fact a new name. In many countries, including common law countries, a name change can be ratified by a court and become a person's new legal name.
For example, in the s, black civil rights campaigner Malcolm Little changed his surname to "X", to represent his unknown African ancestral name, lost when his ancestors were brought to North America as slaves, he changed his name again to Malik El-Shabazz when he converted to Islam.
He adopted his Hebrew name in , when he published his first article in a Zionist journal in Jerusalem. Many transgender people choose to adopt a new name around the time of their social transitioning, to resemble their desired gender better than their birth name.
Businesspersons of ethnic minorities in some parts of the world are sometimes advised by an employer to use a pseudonym, common or acceptable in that area when conducting business, to overcome racial or religious bias. Criminals may use aliases, fictitious business names, dummy corporations to hide their identity, or to impersonate other persons or entities in order to commit fraud.
Aliases and fictitious business names used for dummy corporations may become so complex that, in the words of the Washington Post , "getting to the truth requires a walk down a bizarre labyrinth " and multiple government agencies may become involved to uncover the truth. A pen name, or " nom de plume ", is a pseudonym adopted by an author; some female authors used male pen names, in particular in the 19th century, when writing was a male-dominated profession.
A well-known example of the former is Mary Ann Evans. In contrast, some twentieth and twenty first century male romance novelists have used female pen names. A pen name may be used if a writer's real name is to be confused with the name of another writer or notable individual, or if their real name is deemed to be unsuitable.
Authors who write both fiction and non-fiction , or in different genres, may use. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Ousby ed. English Literature in Transition, — Retrieved Who's Who. Brighton: Harvester Press, , p.
Schaffer, The Forgotten Female Aesthetes p. Lundberg, An Inward Necessity p. Peter Lang. Categories : births deaths 19th-century English novelists 20th-century English novelists Women of the Victorian era English women novelists Ghost story writers 20th-century British women writers. National Library of Australia.
Related Images. YouTube Videos. The county town, with city status, is Winchester, a frequent seat of the Royal Court before any fixed capital, in late Anglo-Saxon England. Gissing also worked as a teacher and tutor throughout his life. He published his first novel, Workers in the Dawn, in Commemorative tablet at Gissing's birthplace. A ghost story may be any piece of fiction, or drama, that includes a ghost, or simply takes as a premise the possibility of ghosts or characters' belief in them. The "ghost" may appear of its own accord or be summoned by magic. Illustration by James McBryde for M.
John Dee and Edward Kelley invoking the spirit of a deceased person engraving from the Astrology by Ebenezer Sibly , The ghost is wearing stylised plate armour in 17th-century style, including a morion type helmet and tassets. Depicting ghosts as wearing armour, to suggest a sense of antiquity, was common in Elizabethan theatre. Modernism is a philosophical movement that, along with cultural trends and changes, arose from wide-scale and far-reaching transformations in Western society during the late 19th and early 20th centuries.
Petersburg , Russia. Henri Matisse's second version of The Dance signifies a key point in his career and in the development of modern painting. Fallingwater was one of Wright's most famous private residences completed A Realist portrait of Otto von Bismarck.
The modernists condemned realism. Meynell by John Singer Sargent , pencil, Mary Ann Evans, known by her pen name George Eliot, was an English novelist, poet, journalist, translator, and one of the leading writers of the Victorian era.
Eliot's grave in Highgate Cemetery. Portrait by Frederick William Burton , Romain Rolland in , on the balcony of his home. Mirror of the Internet Archive in the Bibliotheca Alexandrina. Originally intended to be several wings, only one wing was completed and was demolished in Now the site of the Edmund Barton Building. The library seen from Lake Burley Griffin in autumn.
Eversley is a village and civil parish in the Hart district of northeast Hampshire, England. The village is located around 11 miles northeast of Basingstoke and around 2. The Chequers is a Grade II listed building and was built in the 17th century with 19th- and 20th-century additions. Caricature by Adriano Cecioni published in Vanity Fair in Image: Charles Kingsley.
Photograph by Charles Watkins. Wellcome V Aestheticism is an intellectual and art movement supporting the emphasis of aesthetic values more than social-political themes for literature, fine art, music and other arts. Music by Thomas Dewing , ca. Brooklyn Museum.
Edward Frederic Benson was an English novelist, biographer, memoirist, archaeologist and short story writer. Lamb House, home of E. Benson and model for "Mallards" in the Lucia series.
Photograph by Adolphe Beau, c. Tomb of Ouida in Bagni di Lucca 's English cemetery. The Dean and Chapter of Westminster are the ecclesiastical governing body of Westminster Abbey, a collegiate church of the Church of England and royal peculiar in Westminster, Greater London.